I start the lesson by having a live ocean web cam displayed at the front of the room. Students enter and are able to watch a variety of live ocean animals from around the world.
Explore has many terrific web cams that can be viewed live and recorded, as time permits. Not only does this set the stage for the upcoming lesson, but it also allows students time to view animals in their natural habitat, which provides some authenticity to the content we will study. I start by having the students read through the Activities page on my Underwater Adventures website, created to guide them through the unit.
This page introduces them to several mysterious ocean animals that have washed up on a local shore. At this point in the lesson,the information listed by each species will not make a great deal of difference to the students. But as they progress, these clues will take on much more meaning and help them to determine where each animal resides in the ocean. Once students are familiar with the process and expectations, I have them access the Travel and Observe on the site I created.
Students will study the diagram and them visit each ocean zone by clicking on the link for its corresponding page. Each ocean zone is labeled at the bottom of the page. Typically, students will be able to investigate zones per day.
As students study each ocean zone, they take notes using the provided notes sheet. While I allow them to work in groups ofI still require each student to take their own notes. Not only does this ensure engagement by all students, but it will also aid in greater retention and collaboration later in the lesson. Students may discuss their findings with their partners but must visit all of the resources.
In other words, they cannot each visit one site to lessen their workload. Someone may find something on a site that another missed, therefore making group and class discussions much richer in the end. My Oceanography Website. Now that students have studied each ocean zone in detail, they use what they have learned about the ocean zones to review the animals that have washed up on shore and decide where they came from. Students will select at least three of these animals and determine each of the following to the best of their ability :.
I explain that they should use the information given to them to make an educated guess, just as a scientist in the field would do! Students create a 3-slide presentation In Google presentations, PowerPoint, or a similar program.
Each slide must show a picture of the animal taken directly from my site and contain all of the required information. Students must use evidence from the sites we accessed to justify why they believe their species is from a particular ocean zone.To login with Google, please enable popups. Sign up. To signup with Google, please enable popups.
Already have an account? Log in. The Epipelagic Zone is the surface layer of the ocean that extends from the surface to meters feet. It is also known as the sunlight zone because this is where most of the visible light exists. Get started today! Ocean Zones. Edit a Copy. Study these flashcards. Karely A. The dark ocean below the depth to which light can penetrate.
The part of an ocean or lake beneath the photic zone where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur. Sunlite zone where plants grow 1st layer of the ocean. Twilight zone where only a small amount of light get through 2nd layer of the ocean. Bathypelagic zone. There is basically no light.The oceans may seem mysterious and inaccessible, but scientists explore the oceanic zone using numerous tools. As the oceans' secrets are discovered, scientists describe the oceans in a variety of ways.
This change in thinking developed as researchers learned more about the great conveyor belt, a large current that moves water around the Earth.
This current, driven by density differences due to variations in salinity and temperature, travels through the deep and surface waters, ultimately circumnavigating the globe through every oceanic zone. People now realize that, rather than different types of ocean, there is only one world ocean.
The ocean can be divided into zones based on different sets of characteristics. For example, the ocean can be divided into three zones based on density changes resulting from temperature and salinity variations.
The three zones in that classification are the surface or mixed zone, the pycnocline and the deep ocean. Another system describes the neritic or shallow zone, then separates the open ocean or pelagic zone from the ocean bottom or benthic zone. These two zones are then subdivided based on depth. Another way of subdividing the ocean considers how deep light penetrates the ocean. The surface zone where sunlight penetrates is called the epipelagic zone. The epipelagic zone extends to a depth of approximately feet.
This zone, sometimes called the sunlight zone, absorbs most of the visible light that penetrates the ocean. Photosynthesis, which depends on sunlight, only takes place in the epipelagic zone. Phytoplankton are microscopic oceanic plants that use photosynthesis to produce food. Phytoplankton form the base of the food chain for most marine life.
Phytoplankton also produce much of the oxygen in the atmosphere, making them a critical factor for all animal life. The epipelagic zone tends to be the warmest layer of the ocean. Swimming, fishing, beach combing and other activities let people interact with the plants and animals in this zone. Familiar epipelagic plants and animals include corals, kelp, manatees, jellyfish, crabs and lobsters. Fish with lunate or crescent-shaped tails tend to live in the epipelagic zone.
Many animals in the epipelagic zone are fast moving, transparent or small, all adaptations to avoid being eaten. Because the epipelagic zone is accessible, people tend to consider the entire ocean based on epipelagic zone facts. The deeper layers, however, hold their own fascinating secrets. The second layer of the ocean is the mesopelagic or twilight zone. The mesopelagic zone extends from the bottom of the epipelagic, about feet, down to about 3, feet.
Some sunlight penetrates this zone, but not enough for photosynthesis.There are four major oceanic zones where plants and animals live in the ocean. The four major zones are intertidal zone, neritic zone, open ocean zone and benthic zone.
These zones contain the largest ecosystem on Earth. The intertidal zone is the area of the seafloor between high tide and low tide. It bridges the gap between land and water. Tide pools, estuaries, mangrove swamps and rocky coastal areas are all part of the intertidal zone. The water above the continental shelf is the neritic zone. Underwater forest of kelp and grassy meadows of sea grass are home to tiny fish, green turtles, sea cows, seahorses and tiny shrimp. Coral reefs have thousands of animals and plants that live in the waters of the neritic zone.
This zone is divided further into three subzones. The sunlit zone is where photosynthesis takes place. Plankton and jellyfish are drifters that inhabit this zone. Most animals living in the open ocean live in the sunlit zone.
Below the sunlit zone is the twilight zone where some light penetrates the ocean to a depth of feet. Viper fish, firefly squid, and the chambered nautilus live in this zone. The midnight zone extends from a depth of feet to the seafloor. Animals found in this zone include the giant squid, deep sea hatchetfish and bioluminescent jellyfish. The benthic zone includes the entire seafloor. Aboutspecies of plants and animals live here.
They live on the continental shelf and continental slope. Hydrothermal vents discovered in are also teeming with life.
Neritic and Oceanic Zones of Ocean
These plants and animals doe not need sunlight to exist. Find out how and why they form. Find out how and why they develop. Check out Myrna Martin's award winning textbooks, e-books, videos and rock sets.
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Oceanic Zones There are four major oceanic zones where plants and animals live in the ocean. Kids Fun Science Bookstore. School Books.Top panel : At 6, square milesthe hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is the 8th largest ever measured in the year record. The red area denotes two milligrams per liter of oxygen or lower, the level which is considered hypoxic, at the bottom of the seafloor. Graphic credit: Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium.
Habitats that would normally be teeming with life become, essentially, biological deserts. Hypoxic zones can occur naturally, but scientists are concerned about the areas created or enhanced by human activity. There are many physical, chemical, and biological factors that combine to create dead zones, but nutrient pollution is the primary cause of those zones created by humans.
Excess nutrients that run off land or are piped as wastewater into rivers and coasts can stimulate an overgrowth of algae, which then sinks and decomposes in the water. The decomposition process consumes oxygen and depletes the supply available to healthy marine life. Dead zones occur in coastal areas around the nation and in the Great Lakes — no part of the country or the world is immune. The second largest dead zone in the world is located in the U.
Hypoxia Primer. National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. Hypoxia and Nutrient Pollution Overview. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.
What is eutrophication?In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Introduction to Salinity 2. Controlling Factors of Salinity 3. Distribution 4. Salinity is defined as the ratio between the weight of the dissolved materials and the weight of the sample sea water. The oceanic salinity not only affects the marine organisms and plant community but it also affects the physical properties of the oceans such as temperature, density, pressure, waves and currents etc.
The freezing point of ocean water also depends on salinity e. The boiling point of saline water is higher than the fresh water. Evaporation is also controlled by salinity as it is lower over more saline water than over less saline water.
Variation in salinity causes ocean currents. There is a wide range of variation in the spatial distribution of salinity within the oceans and the seas. The factors affecting the amount of salt in different oceans and seas are called as controlling factors of oceanic salinity. Evaporation, precipitation, influx of river water, prevailing winds, ocean currents and sea waves are significant controlling factors:.
In fact, salt concentration increases with rapid rate of evaporation. For example, salinity is higher near the tropics than at the equator because both the areas record high rate of evaporation but with dry air over the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. According to Wust the average annual rate of evaporation in the Atlantic Ocean is 94 cm to the north of 40 0 N, cm at 20 0 N and cm near the equator say thermal equator which is at 5 0 N.
Salinity is Evaporation in the southern Atlantic Ocean is cm per year at 10 0 S and only 43cm at 5 0 S. In general subtropical high pressure belts and trade wind belts record rapid rate of evaporation which increases salinity but cloudy sky with high humidity lowers down salinity in the equatorial belt.
It may be simply stated that the volume of water in the oceans is increased due to heavy rainfall and thus the ratio of salt to the total volume of water is reduced. Though the rivers bring salt from the land to the oceans but big and voluminous rivers pour down immense volume of water into the oceans and thus salinity is reduced at their mouths. Lawrence etc. The effect of influx of river water is more pronounced in the enclosed seas e.
There is seasonal variation of surface salinity with maximum and minimum runoff from the land I. Sub-tropical high pressure belts represent such conditions to cause high salinity. Winds also help in the redistribution of salt in the oceans and the seas as winds drive away saline water to less saline areas resulting into decrease of salinity in the former and increase in the latter.
In other words, in the areas of upwelling of water less saline water moves up from below and hence low salinity whereas the areas where water is piled up, salinity is increased. Westerlies increase the salinity along the western coasts of the continents whereas they lower the salinity along the eastern coast. Sometimes, winds minimize the spatial variation in salinity.
Ocean currents affect the spatial distribution of salinity by mixing seawaters.The ocean has 5 different and distinct layers that each have their own unique characteristics. The layers range from the surface layer where most ocean activities occur, to the deep dark depths of the water that have yet to be fully explored. The deep layers have unique sea creatures, freezing temperatures, and high pressure.
With the advancement in technology, scientists are hopeful that the oceanic depths will be explored thoroughly.
Ocean Life Zones Notes
As the depth increases, the temperature, light, and sea life decreases. Below is a summary of the ocean's 5 layers. The Hadalpelagic zone is also called the Trenches and is found from the ocean basin and below. The Hadalpelagic zone lies between 19, feet to 36, feet. The depth depends on the trenches and valleys in the area.
In Puerto Rico, fish were discovered at 27, feet deep. The zone cannot be explored without specialized kits due to its cold temperatures and high pressure.
Natural light cannot penetrate to the Trenches. Different creatures can be found in this layer, mostly invertebrates including starfish. The Abyssopelagic zone, also known as the Abyss or Abyssal zone, lies just above the hadalpelagic layer between 13, feet and 19, feet. Pressure is also high due to the weight of the water above. Invertebrates like sea stars and squids can survive in this environment. The Bathypelagic layer is found between 3, feet and 12, feet just above the Abyss.
This layer is also called the midnight or the dark zone. Although the Bathypelagic zone is dark, visible light may be observed from sea creatures found here. The pressure in the zone reaches 5, lbs for every square inch, and a huge number of different sea species are found in the layer. Many animals in this layer are either black or red thanks to low sunlight penetration. Some whale species, like the sperm whale, spend some time at this level in search of food.
Above the Bathypelagic zone lies the Mesopelagic layer Twilight or midwater zone. The Mesopelagic zone lies between feet and 3, feet.
The zone is home to some of the strangest sea animals like the swordfish and the wolf eel. Faint sun rays penetrate the layer. The Epipelagic zone is known as the surface layer or the sunlight zone of the ocean ranging from the surface to feet. There is plenty of light and heat within this layer although both decrease as the depth increases.
Pressure is also minimal and increases with depth. Most oceanic life and human activities like leisure, fishing, and sea transport occur in the Epipelagic zone. The coral reefs can be found in the layer and the photosynthesis process occurs here. There are five layers of the ocean: the sunlight zone, the twilight zone, the midnight zone, the abyss, and the trenches. All rights reserved. There is plenty we do not know about the "deep sea" zones of the ocean.
Hadalpelagic Zone The Trenches The Hadalpelagic zone is also called the Trenches and is found from the ocean basin and below. What are the Five Layers of the Ocean? This page was last updated on August 1, By Joseph Kiprop.